- Understand Core & STG – performance
- Familiarity with functional terminology
- Understand execution model – reasonable cost model

Haskell -> GHC Haskell -> Core -> STG -> Cmm -> Assembly

- GHC Haskell: Used by libraries to implement Haskell proper but expose manual optimization opportunities and extract commonalities into library code rather than the compiler
- Core: ‘Simple’ functional language for optimization
- STG: Variant of core that makes laziness more explicit for easier compilation
- Cmm: Procedural language for portability among backends (LLVM or native-code-generator) and architectures (x86, ARM, PowerPC).

Primitive types (GHC.Prim):

- Char#, Int#, Word#, Double#, Float#, Word#
- Array#, ByteArray#, ArrayArray#, MutableArray#
- MutVar#, TVar#, MVar#, ThreadId#
- Addr#, StablePtr#, StableName#, Weak#
- State#

All primitive types are *unlifted* – can’t contain ⊥.

`ghci> :browse GHC.Prim`

All variants of Int (In8, Int16, Int32, Int64) are represented internally by Int# (64bit) on a 64bit machine.

```
data Int32 = I32# Int# deriving (Eq, Ord, Typeable)
instance Num Int32 where
(I32# x#) + (I32# y#) = I32# (narrow32Int# (x# +# y#))
...
```

Data constructors *lift* a type, allowing ⊥.

- IO Monad is a state passing monad
- Trying to achieve: order of execution + execute once semantics

```
newtype IO a = IO (State# RealWorld -> (# State# RealWorld, a #))
returnIO :: a -> IO a
returnIO x = IO $ \ s -> (# s, x #)
bindIO :: IO a -> (a -> IO b) -> IO b
bindIO (IO m) k = IO $ \ s -> case m s of (# new_s, a #) -> unIO (k a) new_s
```

`RealWorld`

token enforces ordering through data dependence

```
comp :: Handle -> IO ()
comp = do name <- hGetLine h
hPutStrLn h name
```

```
comp :: GHC.IO.Handle.Types.Handle -> GHC.Prim.State# GHC.Prim.RealWorld
-> (# GHC.Prim.State# GHC.Prim.RealWorld, () #)
comp = \h rw1 ->
case GHC.IO.Handle.Text.hGetLine h rw1 of
(# rw2, str #) -> GHC.IO.Handle.Text.hPutStr h str rw2
```

- Various unsafe functions throw away
`RealWorld`

token - No longer have guarantees about order or execution, or execute-one only semantics, optimizer could duplicate, or two threads could race and evaluate the same thunk

```
unsafePerformIO :: IO a -> a
unsafePerformIO m = unsafeDupablePerformIO (noDuplicate >> m)
unsafeDupablePerformIO :: IO a -> a
unsafeDupablePerformIO (IO m) = lazy (case m realWorld# of (# _, r #) -> r)
```

Idea: map Haskell to a small lanuage for easier optimization and compilation

Functional lazy language

It consists of only a hand full of constructs!

`variables, literals, let, case, lambda abstraction, application`

- In general think,
`let`

means allocation,`case`

means evaluation

`ghc -ddump-simpl M.hs > M.core`

```
data Expr b -- "b" for the type of binders,
= Var Id
| Lit Literal
| App (Expr b) (Arg b)
| Lam b (Expr b)
| Let (Bind b) (Expr b)
| Case (Expr b) b Type [Alt b]
| Type Type
| Cast (Expr b) Coercion
| Coercion Coercion
| Tick (Tickish Id) (Expr b)
data Bind b = NonRec b (Expr b)
| Rec [(b, (Expr b))]
type Arg b = Expr b
type Alt b = (AltCon, [b], Expr b)
data AltCon = DataAlt DataCon | LitAlt Literal | DEFAULT
```

Lets now look at how Haskell is compiled to Core.

Haskell

```
idChar :: Char -> Char
idChar c = c
```

Core

```
idChar :: GHC.Types.Char -> GHC.Types.Char
[GblId, Arity=1]
idChar = \ (c :: GHC.Types.Char) -> c
```

- [GblId…] specifies various metadata about the function, mostly ignore
- Functions are all lambda abstractions
- Names are fully qualified

Haskell

```
id :: a -> a
id x = x
idChar2 :: Char -> Char
idChar2 = id
```

Core

```
id :: forall a. a -> a
id = \ (@ a) (x :: a) -> x
idChar2 :: GHC.Types.Char -> GHC.Types.Char
idChar2 = id @ GHC.Types.Char
```

- Types become arguments too! We explicitly pass types and instantiate polymorphic functions
- Type variables are proceeded by @ symbol (read them as ‘at type …’)
- This is known as second order lambda calculus
- GHC uses this representation as it helps with preserving type information during optimization

Haskell

```
map :: (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b]
map _ [] = []
map f (x:xs) = f x : map f xs
```

Core

```
map :: forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b]
map = \ (@ a) (@ b) (f :: a -> b) (xs :: [a]) ->
case xs of _
[] -> GHC.Types.[] @ b
: y ys -> GHC.Types.: @ b (f y) (map @ a @ b f ys)
```

- Case statements are only place evaluation happens, read them as ‘evaluate’

New case syntax to make obvious that evaluation is happening:

```
case e of result
__DEFAULT -> result
```

Haskell

```
dox :: Int -> Int
dox n = x * x
where x = n + 2
```

Core

```
dox :: GHC.Types.Int -> GHC.Types.Int
dox = \ (n :: GHC.Types.Int) ->
let x :: GHC.Types.Int
x = GHC.base.plusInt n (GHC.Types.I# 2)
in GHC.base.multInt x x
```

Haskell

```
iff :: Bool -> a -> a -> a
iff True x _ = x
iff False _ y = y
```

Core

```
iff :: forall a. GHC.Bool.Bool -> a -> a -> a
iff = \ (@ a) (d :: GHC.Bool.Bool) (x :: a) (y :: a) ->
case d of _
GHC.Bool.False -> y
GHC.Bool.True -> x
```

Haskell

```
typeclass MyEnum a where
toId :: a -> Int
fromId :: Int -> a
```

Core

```
data MyEnum a = DMyEnum (a -> Int) (Int -> a)
toId :: forall a. MyEnum a -> a -> GHC.Types.Int
toId = \ (@ a) (d :: MyEnum a) (x :: a) ->
case d of _
DMyEnum f1 _ -> f1 x
fromId :: forall a. MyEnum a -> GHC.Types.Int -> a
fromId = \ (@ a) (d :: MyEnum a) (x :: a) ->
case d of _
DMyEnum _ f2 -> f2 x
```

- Typeclasses are implemented via
*dictionary*data type - Functions that have type class constraints take an extra dictionary argument

Haskell

```
instance MyEnum Int where
toId = id
fromId = id
```

Core

```
fMyEnumInt :: MyEnum GHC.Types.Int
fMyEnumInt =
DMyEnum @ GHC.Types.Int
(id @ GHC.Types.Int)
(id @ GHC.Types.Int)
```

Haskell

```
instance (MyEnum a) => MyEnum (Maybe a) where
toId (Nothing) = 0
toId (Just n) = toId n
fromId 0 = Nothing
fromId n = Just $ fromId n
```

Core

```
fMyEnumMaybe :: forall a. MyEnum a -> MyEnum (Maybe a)
fMyEnumMaybe = \ (@ a) (dict :: MyEnum a) ->
DMyEnum @ (Maybe a)
(fMyEnumMaybe_ctoId @ a dict)
(fMyEnumMaybe_cfromId @ a dict)
fMyEnumMaybe_ctoId :: forall a. MyEnum a -> Maybe a -> Int
fMyEnumMaybe_ctoId = \ (@ a) (dict :: MyEnum a) (mx :: Maybe a) ->
case mx of _
Nothing -> I# 0
Just n -> case (toId @ a dict n) of _ { I# y -> I# (1 +# y) }
```

- Function with
`MyEnum (Maybe a)`

constraint will take in a`MyEnum a`

dictionary as an argument and call`fMyEnumMaybe`

to construct the needed value.

Haskell

```
data Point = Point {-# UNPACK #-} !Int
{-# UNPACK #-} !Int
```

Core

`data Point = Point Int# Int#`

- Only one data type for Point exists, GHC doesn’t duplicate it.

Haskell

```
addP :: P -> Int
addP (P x y ) = x + y
```

Core

```
addP :: P -> Int
addP = \ (p :: P) ->
case p of _
P x y -> case +# x y of z
__DEFAULT -> I# z
```

- Great code here as working with unboxed types

Haskell

```
module M where
{-# NOINLINE add #-}
add x y = x + y
module P where
addP_bad (P x y) = add x y
```

Core

```
addP_bad = \ (p :: P) ->
case p of _
P x y ->
let x' = I# x
y' = I# y
in M.add x' y'
```

- Need to unfortunately rebox the types since
`add`

only works with boxed types

- Look at Core to get an idea of how your code will perform
- Can see boxing and unboxing
- Language still lazy but
`case`

means evaluation,`let`

means allocation

A lot of the optimizations that GHC does is through core to core transformations.

Lets look at two of them:

- Strictness and unboxing
- SpecConstr

```
Fun Fact: Estimated that functional languages gain 20 - 40%
improvement from inlining Vs. imperative languages which gain 10 - 15%
```

Consider this factorial implementation in Haskell:

```
fac :: Int -> Int -> Int
fac x 0 = a
fac x n = fac (n*x) (n-1)
```

- In Haskell
`x`

&`n`

must be represented by pointers to a possibly unevaluated objects (thunks) - Even if evaluated still represented by “boxed” values on the heap

Core

```
fac :: Int -> Int -> Int
fac = \ (x :: Int) (n :: Int) ->
case n of _
I# n# -> case n# of _
0# -> x
__DEFAULT -> let one = I# 1
n' = n - one
x' = n * x
in fac x' n'
```

- We allocate thunks before the recursive call and box arguments
*But*`fac`

will immediately evaluate the thunks and unbox the values!

Compile `fac`

with optimizations.

```
$wfac :: Int# -> Int# -> Int#
$wfac = \ x# n# ->
case n# of _
0# -> x#
_ -> case (n# -# 1#) of n'#
_ -> case (n# *# x#) of x'#
_ -> $wfac x'# n'#
fac :: Int -> Int -> Int
fac = \ a n ->
case a of
I# a# -> case n of
I# n# -> case ($wfac a# n#) of
r# -> I# r#
```

- Create an optimized ‘worker’ and keep original function as ‘wrapper’ to preserve interface
- Must preserve semantics of ⊥ –
`fac`

⊥`n = opt(fac)`

⊥`n`

- As the wrapper uses unboxed types and is tail recursive, this will compile to a tight loop in machine code!

The idea of the SpecConstr pass is to extend the strictness and unboxing from before but to functions where arguments aren’t strict in every code path.

Consider this Haskell function:

```
drop :: Int -> [a] -> [a]
drop n [] = []
drop 0 xs = xs
drop n (x:xs) = drop (n-1) xs
```

- Not strict in first argument:
`drop`

⊥ [] = []`drop`

⊥ (x:xs) = ⊥

So we get this code without extra optimization:

```
drop n xs = case xs of
[] -> []
(y:ys) -> case n of
I# n# -> case n# of
0 -> []
_ -> let n' = I# (n# -# 1#)
in drop n' ys
```

- But after the first call of drop, we are strict in
`n`

and always evaluate it!

The SpecConstr pass takes advantage of this to create a specialised version of `drop`

that is only called after we have passed the first check.

```
-- works with unboxed n
drop' n# xs = case xs of
[] -> []
(y:ys) -> case n# of
0# -> []
_ -> drop' (n# -# 1#) xs
drop n xs = case xs of
[] -> []
(y:ys) -> case n of
I# n# -> case n# of
0 -> []
_ -> drop' (n# -# 1#) xs
```

- To stop code size blowing up, GHC limits the amount of specialized functions it creates (specified with the
`-fspec-constr-threshol`

and`-fspec-constr-count`

flags)

After Core, GHC compiles to another intermediate language called STG

- STG is very similar to Core but has one nice additional property:
- laziness is ‘explicit’
`case`

=*evaluation*and ONLY place evaluation occurs (true in Core)`let`

=*allocation*and ONLY place allocation occurs (not true in Core)- So in STG we can explicitly see thunks being allocated for laziness using
`let`

`ghc -ddump-stg A.hs > A.stg`

Haskell

```
map :: (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b]
map f [] = []
map f (x:xs) = f x : map f xs
```

STG

```
map :: forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b]
map = \r [f xs]
case xs of _
[] -> [] []
: z zs -> let bds = \u [] map f zs
bd = \u [] f z
in : [bd bds]
```

- Lambda abstraction as
`[arg1 arg2] f`

`\r`

- re-entrant function`\u`

- updatable function (i.e., thunk)- Data constructors applied with
`[]`

Graph reduction is a good computational model for lazy functional languages.

```
f g = let x = 2 + 2
in (g x, x)
```

Graph reduction is a good computational model for lazy functional languages.

```
f g = let x = 2 + 2
in (g x, x)
```

Graph reduction is a good computational model for lazy functional languages.

- Graph reduction allows lazy evaluation and sharing
*let*: adds new node to graph*case*: expression evaluation, causes the graph to be reduced- When a node is reduced, it is replaced (or
*updated*) with its result

Can think of your Haskell program as progressing by either adding new nodes to the graph or reducing existing ones.

- GHC uses closures as a unifying representation
- All objects in the heap are closures
A stack frame is a closure

- GHC uses continuation-passing-style
- Always jump to top stack frame to return
Functions will prepare stack in advance to setup call chains

Closure | Info Table | ||

- Header usually just a pointer to the code and metadata for the closure
- Get away with single pointer through positive and negative offsets
- Payload contains the closures environment (e.g free variables, function arguments)

`data G = G (Int -> Int) {-# UNPACK #-} !Int`

`[Header | Pointers... | Non-pointers...]`

- Payload is the values for the constructor
- Entry code for a constructor just returns

`jmp Sp[0]`

```
f = \x -> let g = \y -> x + y
in g x
```

- [Header | Pointers… | Non-pointers…]
- Payload is the bound free variables, e.g.,
`[ &g | x ]`

- Entry code is the function code

`foldr (:)`

`[Header | Arity | Payload size | Function | Payload]`

- Arity of the PAP (function of arity 3 with 1 argument applied gives PAP of arity 2)
- Function is the closure of the function that has been partially applied
- PAPs should never be entered so the entry code is some failure code

`range = [1..100]`

`[Header | Pointers... | Non-pointers...]`

- Payload contains the free variables of the expression
- Differ from function closure in that they
*can be updated* - Entry code is the code for the expression

- On X86 32bit - all arguments passed on stack
On X86 64bit - first 5 arguments passed in registers, rest on stack

`R1`

register in Cmm code usually is a pointer to the current closure (i.e., similar to`this`

in OO languages)

- Thunks once evaluated should update their node in the graph to be the computed value
- GHC uses a
*self-updating-model*– code unconditionally jumps to a thunk. Up to thunk to update itself, replacing code with value - If thunk already evaluated, then entry code just returns

```
mk :: Int -> Int
mk x = x + 1
```

```
// thunk entry - setup stack, evaluate x
mk_entry()
entry:
if (Sp - 24 < SpLim) goto gc; // check for enough stack space
I64[Sp - 16] = stg_upd_frame_info; // setup update frame (closure type)
I64[Sp - 8] = R1; // set thunk to be updated (payload)
I64[Sp - 24] = mk_exit; // setup continuation (+)
Sp = Sp - 24; // decrease stack
R1 = I64[R1 + 8]; // grab 'x' from environment
jump I64[R1] (); // eval 'x'
gc: jump stg_gc_enter_1 ();
```

`stg_upd_frame_info`

RTS function that handles updating a thunk with it’s result.

```
mk :: Int -> Int
mk x = x + 1
```

```
// thunk exit - setup value on heap, tear-down stack
mk_exit()
entry:
Hp = Hp + 16;
if (Hp > HpLim) goto gc;
v::I64 = I64[R1] + 1; // perform ('x' + 1)
I64[Hp - 8] = GHC_Types_I_con_info; // setup Int closure
I64[Hp + 0] = v::I64;
R1 = Hp; // point R1 to computed thunk value
Sp = Sp + 8; // pop stack
jump (I64[Sp + 0]) (); // jump to continuation ('stg_upd_frame_info')
gc: HpAlloc = 16;
jump stg_gc_enter_1 ();
```

- To update a thunk with its value we need to change its header pointer
- Should point to code that simply returns now
Payload also now needs to include the value

- Naive solution would be to synchronize on every thunk access
- But we don’t need to! Races on thunks are fine since we can rely on purity Races just leads to duplication of work
This is one reason why

`unsafeDupablePerformIO`

can lead duplication! And explains the check that`unsafePerformIO`

has to avoid this

Thunk closure:

`[Header | Pointers... | Non-pointers...]`

`Header`

=`[ Info Table Pointer | Result Slot ]`

Result slot empty when thunk unevaluated

Update code first places result in result slot and secondly changes the info table pointer

Safe to do without synchronization (need write barrier) on all architectures GHC supports: no thread will see the new info table pointer without a valid result slot pointer

Evaluation model is we always enter a closure, even values

This is poor for performance, we prefer to avoid entering values every single time

An optimization that GHC does is

*pointer tagging*. The trick is to use the final bits of a pointer which are usually zero (last 2 for 32bit, 3 on 64) for storing a ‘tag’- GHC uses this tag for:
- If the object is a constructor, the tag contains the constructor number (if it fits)
- If the object is a function, the tag contains the arity of the function (if it fits)

Our example code from before:

```
mk :: Int -> Int
mk x = x + 1
```

Changes with pointer tagging:

```
mk_entry()
entry:
...
R1 = I64[R1 + 16]; // grab 'x' from environment
if (R1 & 7 != 0) goto cxd; // check if 'x' is eval'd
jump I64[R1] (); // not eval'd so eval
cxd: jump mk_exit (); // 'x' eval'd so jump to (+) continuation
}
mk_exit()
cx0:
I64[Hp - 8] = ghczmprim_GHCziTypes_Izh_con_info; // setup Int closure
I64[Hp + 0] = v::I64; // setup Int closure
R1 = Hp - 7; // point R1 to computed thunk value (with tag)
...
}
```

- If the closure is a constructor, the tag contains the constructor number (if it fits).

`data MyBool a = MTrue a | MFalse a`

Will be as efficient as using an

`Int#`

for representing true and false.If your type has more constructors than the tag bits allow (4 or more on 32bit, 8 or more on 64bit) then GHC just uses the tag bits 0 or 1 to represent evaluated or unevaluated.

Haskell

```
mycase :: Maybe Int -> Int
mycase x = case x of Just z -> z; Nothing -> 10
```

Cmm

```
mycase_entry() // corresponds to forcing 'x'
entry:
R1 = R2; // R1 = 'x'
I64[Sp - 8] = mycase_exit; // setup case continuation
Sp = Sp - 8;
if (R1 & 7 != 0) goto crL; // check pointer tag to see if x eval'd
jump I64[R1] (); // x not eval'd, so eval
exit:
jump mycase_exit (); // jump to case continuation
mycase_exit() // case continuation
entry:
v::I64 = R1 & 7; // get tag bits of 'x' and put in local variable 'v'
if (_crD::I64 >= 2) goto crE; // can use tag bits to check which constructor we have
R1 = stg_INTLIKE_closure+417; // 'Nothing' case
Sp = Sp + 8;
jump (I64[Sp + 0]) (); // jump to continuation ~= return
exit:
R1 = I64[R1 + 6]; // get 'z' thunk inside Just
Sp = Sp + 8;
R1 = R1 & (-8); // clear tags on 'z'
jump I64[R1] (); // force 'z' thunk
```

No lecture on Compilers is complete without assembly code!

```
add :: Int -> Int -> Int
add x y = x + y + 2
```

```
A_add_info:
.LcvZ:
leaq -16(%rbp),%rax
cmpq %r15,%rax
jb .Lcw1
movq %rsi,-8(%rbp)
movq %r14,%rbx
movq $sul_info,-16(%rbp)
addq $-16,%rbp
testq $7,%rbx
jne sul_info
jmp *(%rbx)
.Lcw1:
movl $A_add_closure,%ebx
jmp *-8(%r13)
sul_info:
.LcvS:
movq 8(%rbp),%rax
movq 7(%rbx),%rcx
movq %rcx,8(%rbp)
movq %rax,%rbx
movq $suk_info,0(%rbp)
testq $7,%rbx
jne suk_info
jmp *(%rbx)
suk_info:
.LcvK:
addq $16,%r12
cmpq 144(%r13),%r12
ja .LcvP
movq 7(%rbx),%rax
addq $2,%rax
movq 8(%rbp),%rcx
addq %rax,%rcx
movq $ghczmprim_GHCziTypes_Izh_con_info,-8(%r12)
movq %rcx,0(%r12)
leaq -7(%r12),%rbx
addq $16,%rbp
jmp *0(%rbp)
.LcvP:
movq $16,184(%r13)
.LcvQ:
jmp *-16(%r13)
```

So that’s is all I can cover in this lecture.

- I haven’t covered a few significant areas:
- Typechecking
- Garbage collection
- The scheduler: threads, multi-processor support
- Foreign Function Interface
- Profiling
- Infrastructure of the compiler: Interface files, packages, modular compilation… ect
- Final code generators
- GHCi
- The finer details of lazy evaluation: blackholes

Here are some resources to learn about GHC, they were also used to create these slides:

- GHC Wiki: Developer Documentation
- GHC Wiki: I know kung fu: learning STG by example
- Wikipedia: System F
- Paper: Multi-paradigm Just-In-Time Compilation
- Paper: Implementing lazy functional languages on stock hardware: the Spineless Tagless G-machine
- Paper: Implementing Functional Languages: a tutorial
- Paper: Runtime support for Multicore Haskell
- Paper: Multicore Garbage Collection with Local Heaps
- Paper: Parallel generational-copying garbage collection with a block-structured heap
- Paper: Making a fast curry: Push/enter vs eval/apply for higher-order languages
- Paper: An External Representation for the GHC Core Language
- Paper: A transformation-based optimiser for Haskell
- Paper: Playing by the rules: rewriting as a practical optimisation technique in GHC
- Paper: Secrets of the Inliner
- Paper: Unboxed Values as First-Class Citizens